SerbianEnglish (United Kingdom)

Towards the end of the 18th century there was a new craze for wax works. These were displays of celebrity figures just like ones at Madame Tussaud‘s in London, Baker street.
Madame Tussaud was one of the earliest makers of wax-headed figures, and modelled portraits of the King of France and his courtiers after they had been executed in the revolution of 1789.
VOSAK_2By the beginning of the 19th century wax had became the most popular material for professional doll makers. Wax dolls came in two main types.
Wax over composition dolls were made by applying a thin coat of wax over composition heads and limbs. They were easier and less expensive to produce then the poured wax dolls. The wax over composition dolls had a more natural appearance than the ones made of only composition. They were made from the 1830’s to the 1900’s, mostly by German doll makers.
In the 1870’s, the English started producing some wax composition dolls. These English dolls are usually well marked with body stamps, therefore, wax over  composition dolls with no marking are assumed to be German.
Change in temperature and humidity caused the composition bases to shrink and expand, resulting in cracking and crazing of the wax covering.
Poured wax dolls originated from widespread Roman Catholic practice of creating religious effigies from wax. The craftsmen expanded their art into wax doll making.
In the 19th century, mainly in England, wax dolls were first produced for non- religious purposes.
Poured wax dolls were mostly made in home – based businesses, and making them was very hazardous.
If a doll maker wasn’t seriously burned by the hot wax, he could have his lungs harmed by the sawdust used to stuff bodies, or he could be poisoned by the lead used to colour the wax.
This technique was developed in London, and between 1850 and 1930 most of the fine wax dolls were created. 
Wax dolls were much more realistic looking than any other type of doll. 
The wax is translucent, luminous and warm to the touch.
Wax modellers all used basically the same process to create their dolls. 
First, a doll was sculpted from either wax or clay, which was then used to create a plaster mould.
The moulds were then used to cast the doll pieces. First, the metal moulds were heated in boiling water, then the water was shaken off and the moulds wiped with a soft cloth. 
The moulds were laid in rows on a bench and filled with fluid hot wax. When the wax showed signs of setting to the required thickness, the residue was poured out leaving a settlement about a 0.63cm thick.
The moulds were usually made of three interlocking parts: the face and front in one part, and the back of the head in two. Arms and legs were usually in two or three parts.
When the moulds were removed, the seams were smoothed with a smoothing blade, eye- holes cut out, and nostrils, mouth and ears finished with a knife.
The holes in the limbs were made with warm needle. The hairs were inserted three or four at a time by being cut into the wax with a sharp scalpel, using a right to left undercut, and the wax was afterwards flattened with the back of the scalpel. In the best models the human hairs were inserted singly. Eyelashes and eyebrows were then inserted with a technique similar to that used to insert hair in the scalp. The facial features would then be enhanced by colouring the mouth and the whole surface of the head dusted with a fine pumice to remove the shine.
Mostly the heads were shoulder heads that could be attached to the doll’s body by sew-holes on the shoulder plate. Wax dolls can have beautifully realistic heads, because wax can mimic skin much better than either wood or composite.
Some wax dolls are stamped by the maker on the torso; such identification greatly enhances the value.
Bodies of wax dolls are generally made of cloth stuffed with cow hair or sawdust. 
The genre that dolls fall into is determined by the material that their heads are made of
The cow hair, packed in bales, was bought from leather dealers. 
Knowing that cow hair was replaced by kapok about 1900 is a useful guide when dating a doll.

Beeswax
Beeswax is a natural wax product produced in the bee hive of honey bees. Beeswax is produced by young worker bees between 12 and 17 days old , in the form of thin scales secreted by glands of the ventral surface of the abdomen .
Western honey bees use the beeswax to build honey comb cells in which their young are raised and honey and pollen are stored . Its color varies from nearly white to brownish , but most often a shade of yellow , depending on purity and the type of flowers gathered by the bees . The wax can may further be clarified by heating in water and may then be used for candles , shoe polish … or as a coating for cheese . There are many mentions of beeswax in historic writings such as the myth where Deadalus and his son Icarys . On arriving in Crete they made wings for themselves of feathers and wax . According to the legend , Icarus attempted to fly so high that , nearing the sun , the wax melted and caused him to fall into
Aegen Sea and drawn. In Roman times Pliny, lived from 23 AD to 79 AD, described white beeswax which he got by boiling yellow beeswax in salt water. This was then used in broth and feed to those with dysentery, it was also used as a skin softener. Many Romans were honored by hawing statues made of themselves made in beeswax.The Egyptians used wax figures of deities in funeral ceremonies and placed them in graves.
In 400 BC Greek Historians say that Persian coated bodies were a form of embalming. In 181 BC when the Romans defeated the Corsicans and imposed a tax of 100,000 Lbs of beeswax. In medieval European times wax was a unit of trade for taxes or other. In 1330 Farmers in one region of France paid 2 Lb of beeswax per year. Today beeswax is sometimes used in Automobile waxes but normally it is most used in furniture wax and polishes.